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Timber Terminology

Because the terminology in Timber can be overwhealming, here we have a list of the most used terms in the industry:

A

Air Dried:

Timber has been dried naturally by the air usually under cover to a moisture content of 15% to 20%

Architrave:

A moulding used to surround an opening to cover the gap between joinery and the adjoining work.

B

Balustrade:

A railing; A series of rails or columns  joined by a top rail.  

Baltic (Pine):

Term applied generally to timber from the Baltic States. 

Band Saw:

An endless ribbon saw rotating around two pulley wheels used for curved work in joinery and cabinet making.  

Batten:

A long thin piece of rectangular shaped material used to support roof tiles or cover joints between paneling. 

Beam:

Structural timber which is supported at 2 or 4 points. 

Bearer:

A length of timber placed across piers or a series of stringers.

Bevel:

In carpentry a slope from the horizontal or vertical angle.

Blemish:

A marring in the appearance of timber that is not serious enough to be classed as a defect.

Bond:

Adhesion.

Borer:

A wood boring insect at the beetle or lava stage which burrows into the wood or between bark and wood.

C

Callus:

A condition that develops after a tree has been injured which cover the wound.

Chamferboard:

A type of long thin weatherboards which overlap one another horizontally on an outside wall.

Chipboard:

A panel which is produced by bonding together particles of wood and wood chips, also known as particleboard.

Clear Timber:

Timber which is clear of any imperfections.

Cladding:

The outer covering of the external walls to a frame of a building.

Cornice:

A moulding at the junction of a ceiling and wall.

Cubic Metres:

Length x width x depth.

D

Debark:

To strip a tree from its bark.

Decking:

Timber used for surfacing bridges, wharves and out-door home areas.

Dowel:

A round timber rod used to hang curtains. Dowel is used in carpentry to fit between two holes in two adjacent pieces.

Dressed Timber:

Timber which has been finished to a smooth surface on one or more sides.

F

Flooring:

Timber  boards which have been prepared for flooring.

Framing Timber:

Timber that is used to form up te basic structure of a building.

J

Joist:

A structure which supports a load.

K

Kiln dried:

Timber which has been seasoned in a kiln to a specific or selected moisture content.

M

Machining:

The behaviour of timber when it is planned, drilled, sawn or worked by hand or with a machine.

N

Non-Structural:

Not load-bearing or not supporting in function.

Nominal Size:

The sawn size of the timber prior to being dressed.

T

Timber:

The Lumber/wood from trees cut and prepared for use as building material.

Termites:

Insects which are very active destroying woody material in tropical and subtropical areas of the world.

True Wood:

Timber which is freshly cut and still has a high moisture content.

Truss:

Support – post, struts and rafters supporting a roof, bridge or structure.

S

Seasoned Timber:

Timber which has been dried to stabilise water content to 10% to 15%.

Sawn:

This is a timber that has not been dressed or sawn.

T

T & G:

Tongue and Groove flooring where the boards have been joined along the length. One with the tongue and the other with the groove.

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